Here, we will look at socially motivated changes in language such as language reforms .. Available online at: Retrieved from http:// is never any one Retrieved from Shih, C., & Gamon, J. (). Web- based learning: Relationships among students motivation, attitude, learning styles and. Capturing socially motivated linguistic change: How the use of gender-fair language affects . Available online at: .

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However, this conclusion may be premature as we still do not know the popular reaction to politically correct language after it has been implemented for a exuhi time. All of the described research was conducted according to the recommendations for online research of Eynon et al. The original version motviation this manipulation as well as of Study 2 and 3 is presented in the Supplementary Material available online.

When this variable was used as a dependent variable, the pattern of results matched those presented in the main analysis.

Responses to the latter were in the format of a semantic differential and could vary, for instance, from 1 negative to 5 positive.

edhui The slider was preset to the mid-point position and the answers were recorded at 1-point intervals ranging from 0 very negative to very positive. However, if gender-fair language is rejected solely because of its novelty, then the effect observed in Study 1 should be independent of the goal of an initiative.

Motivationstheorien nach Kirsten Tiggewerth-Kemper by Hans Peter on Prezi

Side effects of gender-fair language: According to psychologist Magda Leska, initiator of the campaign, this would promote the development of economic life, science, and factual gender equality [gender goal] vs. Sprache ist nicht neutral [Language isn’t neutral]. Our studies are the first to investigate different stages in the implementation of gender-fair language by applying the same research design in two different countries. In contrast to Study 1, we also measured participants’ political attitudes one item with answers from 1 very liberal to 7 very conservative.

Language reforms and gender in equality. In languages with grammatical gender such as German and Polishmost human nouns and pronouns are differentiated as feminine or masculine. In daily life, it is quite common to use academic titles when introducing people. Participants were to indicate whether the initiative 1 was generally popular, 2 was good for the system of higher education, or had the potential of increasing, 3 the prestige of higher education in Austria, 4 the quality of schooling, and 5 should be implemented at all Austrian institutions of higher education.


Geschlechtergerechte Sprache [Gender-fair language]. Will later be fast. Moreover, the positive effect of gender-fair language, especially of feminine forms referring to a group of women only, on evaluations of the initiative suggests that this usage has become so familiar to speakers of Austrian German that failing to use it decreased participants’ support for the initiative.

As in Study 1, we included participants’ political views mean-centered as a covariate in the analysis.

Answers to these questions could vary from 1 definitely not to 7 definitely yes 5. In the second step, we added an interaction term linguistic form and participant gendersince the effects of gender-fair language may be affected by this factor e. Study 3 was conducted in Austria, a country where, in contrast to Poland, gender-fair language is well established in everyday life.

How use of pair forms versus masculines as generics impacts perception of the speaker. However, more important was the finding that initiatives received better evaluations when feminine forms were used for the female proponents than masculine forms regardless of participant gender.

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Arguments of this kind were uttered not only by students Parks and Roberton, but also in the scientific community see Maass et al. This topic may have reinforced the effect of feminine forms in the description. Answers to these questions could vary from 1 definitely not to 7 definitely yes.

However, a serious limitation of Study 1 is that the social initiative presented was about gender equality. The initiative was evaluated using five questions, a shortened version of the scale used in Study 2 7. Hence, over time, politically correct language can be reasonably assumed to become a linguistic standard and thus may then trigger positive evaluation among its users.

The website of the study was accessed by individuals; the final sample of those who completed the study comprised students women, 96 men, and one individual who did not provide information on gender.

Gender-fair Language in Poland and Austria In languages with grammatical gender such as German and Polishmost human nouns and pronouns are differentiated as feminine or masculine. In line with Vervecken and Hannoverwe assumed that the use of gender-fair language in German is currently associated with higher education or competence and has lost its novelty as well as its associations with feminism.


The introduction contained the following manipulation. We conducted three studies Studies 1 and 2 in Poland and Study 3 in Austria with a similar design to examine how the use of gender-fair language or masculine forms affected respondents’ support for social initiatives Studies 1—3 addressing gender-related Studies 1—3or non-gender-related topics Studies 2 and 3. Consistent with other studies on German Vervecken and Hannover,Study 3 on Austrian German showed that designating women with gender-fair feminine forms led to higher support for all types of initiative than when the female proponents were labeled with masculine forms.

Women as men and people: Study 3 replicates Study 2 in Austria. The announcement described the study as a 5-min survey on the development of the system of higher education in Austria. Second question whether the initiative was governed by genuine care for other people was omitted because we have included two additional similar questions examining for exploratory purposes judgments of fairness of the initiative see also Footnote 9.

To avoid associations with in-group interests and to stay clear of ongoing debates about quotas, the gender-related issue in Study 2 involved women professionals helping young female students.

Since then, official regulations have been adopted in German-speaking countries. The interaction term was significant at the 0.

To our knowledge, such language policies’ effectiveness has never been examined. Study 2 was again conducted online in Poland and was advertised in the rduhi forums of two universities in Warsaw. The hypothesized interaction of linguistic form and goal of the initiative was significant and indicated that the conditional effect of linguistic forms was htgp to significant for the gender initiative: The gender initiative was evaluated less favorably when presented with feminine forms than when masculine forms were used.

Thus, novel feminine forms used in a gender context may be perceived as signaling feminism.