Even this was very far from entirely driving out the old system. The système usuel, now abolished, was as follows, the divisions being those of the old system. de L’Isle () and the anonymous “Métrologies Constitutionelles et Primitives’. Even this was very far from entirely driving out the old system. 10d. the answer. he système usuel, now abolished, was as follows, the divisions being de L’Isle () and the anonymous “Métrologies Constitutionelles et Primitives’ (). Even this was very far from entirely driving out the old system. The système usuel, now abolished, was as follows, the divisions being those of the old system. ‘Asétrologies Constitutionelles et Primitives’ (), it may be observed that they.

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When it reaches this stage, chronic intoxication from hemp is one of the aetiological factors eg mental epilepsy. If, on the other hand, he has not the strength to resist the drug’s attraction, a state of chronic intoxication soon sets in and the outlook is serious. If studied superficially, these various statistics, although very fragmentary, would lead one to suppose that the number Of consumers of cannabis, or at any rate of those consuming it in excess, is decreasing; but the real question is whether in most places, save India, hemp addiction has not been supplanted by addiction to manufactured drugs.

In Moslem countries opium is eaten and not smoked. The same view is held by Stringaris [ 33 ]Meyerhof [ 34 ]and J. Sir Thomas Russell, then Director of the Egyptian Narcotics Bureau, was of the opinion that the recrudescence of addiction should be ascribed to the increase in the Nile Valley of certain parasitical diseases such as malaria, bilharziasis, and ancylostomiasis -an increase due to modern changes in the system of irrigating cultivable land.

Chronic intoxication from hashish chira, charas smoking Mental troubles. That is the time when addicts of this kind are most dangerous; their susceptibility is intense: It is among the sedentary dwellers in the oases and the lower classes in the towns artisans, labourers, coachmen, small shopkeepers, boatmen, porters, dockers, etc.

Acute sensitiveness to sound. It divides it up into packets of five grammes which are sold, without any formalities, in all the tobacco shops of the Tunis Regency. Public opinion and the authorities have become alarmed at the spread of this form of addiction, which increased enormously after the prohibition of alcohol, and spread especially among the younger generation of the Latin-American population, Mexican, Philippine, Greek and Spanish immigrant circles, and negroes.

In Egypt, in spite of the Government’s efforts, there is still an active contraband trade, although it is on the wane. The subject becomes less and less inclined to work, is indifferent to everything and finds the least effort burdensome.


Bouquet considers that fines have no effect. The custom of smoking in groups is said to be in obedience to the religious rites of secret societies. There are no statistics for Turkey, Tunisia or Morocco. Warnock [ 53 ] may give an idea-though only a very rough idea-of the proportion of cases of hashish insanity occurring in Cairo from to Bouquet considers that one of the main reasons is the abundant supply.

According to these authors, there, as in North America, a large proportion of criminals 60 per cent were addicts. A bare wall becomes covered with brilliant and fantastic foliage of extraordinary plants and with strange animals and gorgeous patterns. Although in the past the plant was grown openly or secretly for the production of narcotic resin in the Balkan countries Bulgaria, Greece, Romania, Turkey and Yugoslaviathe Governments concerned have since passed measures of prohibition and are making commendable efforts to trace and destroy whatever secret plantations may exist.

XXVI, section 2, Subjects displaying some signs of mental disturbance under the action of the drug are either cases of dementia praecox or mentally deficient, or general paralytics.

These mixtures sold in the illicit traffic are luxury articles, and always expensive; they are in most cases beyond the means of the poorer addicts. In Tunisia, during the yearDr. The bright colours disappear and a grey tone predominates. Thus they hope to secure leniency from primitiges courts, whereas from the social point of view they usudlles actually the most dangerous offenders.

Pascal39bis concludes from this special action of cannabis that it would be useful in psycho-analysis. They are less marked, and some of them, e.

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The only consumers of the drug mentioned in the reports of the Governments of Great Britain, France and the Netherlands, are occasional groups of sailors or traders from India or Moslem countries, settled, for the most part only temporarily, in certain parts of western Europe.

The addict gives prijitives up to a sort of calm and tranquil ecstasy, at times still occasionally interrupted by a ew fitful dreams.

This short survey of the role of hemp in India is enough to show the dangerous and anti-social character of the drug. The subject talks excitedly, argues heatedly about trifles, and is astonished to see that persons around him do not appear to share the excitement he feels.

In Primitivex Africa, persons accustomed to hemp who have allowed themselves to be persuaded to take manufactured drugs, sometimes return to cannabis, either because the ushelles is deep-rooted or because they cannot procure supplies of the new drug.

If they are arrested, they always deny that they are traffickers, confessing on the other hand that they are addicts.


UNODC – Bulletin on Narcotics – Issue 1 –

Life seems easy, pleasant and devoid of material cares. On rare occasions large seizures have been reported in various western European countries; but they concerned consignments in transit to other parts of the world. It is primarily in the hope of restoring their virility, which has become impaired by sexual excesses, and secondly, in order to be able to lead in imagination the life which they would like to live, but which their indolence and love of ease in most cases prevents them from attaining by work, forethought and persevering effort.

At points where the French authorities can exercise control, these caravans transport only innocent cheap wares, but the forbidden wares arms, powder, hashish, chopped hemp, etc. Hemp grows there in the wild state. Their solicitations are so numerous and persistent that the victims have little chance of escape. Clandestine consumption still exists among certain sections of the population in Turkey, Bulgaria, and Greece.

Even objects close at hand become indistinct, as in twilight. For one thing, there are vast regions which are still beyond the reach of investigation Sinkiang and Tibet, for instance.

Cannabis (concluded)

Cannabis has no influence on the development of criminal tendencies. Memory and affection are, like the imagination, over-excited at this stage.

Scenes long forgotten reappear before the addict’s eyes and are re-enacted in their smallest details. Cases of insanity have also been reported in Siam.

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In Ecuador, Nicaragua, Honduras and El Salvador this vice appears to have been introduced since the war. There is certainly less illicit traffic in untreated hemp than in any other drug, for the product is bulky and low-priced and consequently of little interest to the traffickers.

While, owing to the efforts of the League of Nations and the United Nations, hashish has become definitely scarcer in Mediterranean districts, heroin has competed with it and, in part, supplanted it. It cannot therefore be said that cannabis addiction has an influence on criminality in the Moslem world at the present time; in North Africa nowadays there are perhaps more brawls, acts of violence, blows and wounds attributable to alcoholic liquor than to cannabis. He refers to the curious practice of putting in the middle of the place where the meeting is held a small saurian an iguana who serves as a control animal.

Is it, for instance, true that only the lower classes of the population are contaminated by this vice?